Important Hadoop Components/Ecosystem

It is quite interesting to envision how we could adopt the Hadoop ecosystem within the realms of DevOps. Hadoop managed by the Apache Foundation is a powerful open-source platform written in java that is capable of processing large amounts of heterogeneous data-sets at scale in a distributive fashion on cluster of computers using simple programming models. It is designed to scale up from single server to thousands of machines, each offering local computation and storage and has become an in-demand technical skill. Hadoop is an Apache top-level project being built and used by a global community of contributors and users.

Hadoop has gained its popularity due to its ability of storing, analyzing and accessing large amount of data, quickly and cost effectively through clusters of commodity hardware. It wouldn’t be wrong if we say that Apache Hadoop is actually a collection of several components and not just a single product.

With Hadoop Ecosystem there are several commercial along with an open source products which are broadly used to make Hadoop laymen accessible and more usable.

The following sections provide information on most popular components:

MapReduce: Hadoop MapReduce is a software framework for easily writing applications which process big amounts of data in-parallel on large clusters of commodity hardware in a reliable, fault-tolerant manner. In terms of programming, there are two functions which are most common in MapReduce.

  • The Map Task: Master computer or node takes input and convert it into divide it into smaller parts and distribute it on other worker nodes. All worker nodes solve their own small problem and give answer to the master node.
  • The Reduce Task: Master node combines all answers coming from worker node and forms it in some form of output which is answer of our big distributed problem.

Generally both the input and the output are reserved in a file-system. The framework is responsible for scheduling tasks, monitoring them and even re-executes the failed tasks.

Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS): HDFS is a distributed file-system that provides high throughput access to data. When data is pushed to HDFS, it automatically splits up into multiple blocks and stores/replicates the data thus ensuring high availability and fault tolerance.

Note: A file consists of many blocks (large blocks of 64MB and above).

Here are the main components of HDFS:

  • NameNode: It acts as the master of the system. It maintains the name system i.e., directories and files and manages the blocks which are present on the DataNodes.
  • DataNodes: They are the slaves which are deployed on each machine and provide the actual storage. They are responsible for serving read and write requests for the clients.
  • Secondary NameNode: It is responsible for performing periodic checkpoints. In the event of NameNode failure, you can restart the NameNode using the checkpoint.

Hive: Hive is part of the Hadoop ecosystem and provides an SQL like interface to Hadoop. It is a data warehouse system for Hadoop that facilitates easy data summarization, ad-hoc queries, and the analysis of large datasets stored in Hadoop compatible file systems.

It provides a mechanism to project structure onto this data and query the data using a SQL-like language called HiveQL. Hive also allows traditional map/reduce programmers to plug in their custom map­pers and reducers when it is inconvenient or inefficient to express this logic in HiveQL.

The main building blocks of Hive are –

  1. Metastore – To store metadata about columns, partition and system catalogue.
  2. Driver – To manage the lifecycle of a HiveQL statement
  3. Query Compiler – To compiles HiveQL into a directed acyclic graph.
  4. Execution Engine – To execute the tasks in proper order which are produced by the compiler.
  5. HiveServer – To provide a Thrift interface and a JDBC / ODBC server.

HBase (Hadoop DataBase): HBase is a distributed, column oriented database and uses HDFS for the underlying storage. As said earlier, HDFS works on write once and read many times pattern, but this isn’t a case always. We may require real time read/write random access for huge dataset; this is where HBase comes into the picture. HBase is built on top of HDFS and distributed on column-oriented database.

Here are the main components of HBase:

  • HBase Master: It is responsible for negotiating load balancing across all RegionServers and maintains the state of the cluster. It is not part of the actual data storage or retrieval path.
  • RegionServer: It is deployed on each machine and hosts data and processes I/O requests.

Zookeeper: ZooKeeper is a centralized service for maintaining configuration information, naming, providing distributed synchronization and providing group services which are very useful for a variety of distributed systems. HBase is not operational without ZooKeeper.

Mahout: Mahout is a scalable machine learning library that implements various different approaches machine learning. At present Mahout contains four main groups of algorithms:

  • Recommendations, also known as collective filtering
  • Classifications, also known as categorization
  • Clustering
  • Frequent item-set mining, also known as parallel frequent pattern mining

Algorithms in the Mahout library belong to the subset that can be executed in a distributed fashion and have been written to be executable in MapReduce. Mahout is scalable along three dimensions: It scales to reasonably large data sets by leveraging algorithm properties or implementing versions based on Apache Hadoop.

Sqoop (SQL-to-Hadoop): Sqoop is a tool designed for efficiently transferring structured data from SQL Server and SQL Azure to HDFS and then uses it in MapReduce and Hive jobs. One can even use Sqoop to move data from HDFS to SQL Server.

sqoop-import-export

Apache Spark: Apache Spark is a general compute engine that offers fast data analysis on a large scale. Spark is built on HDFS but bypasses MapReduce and instead uses its own data processing framework. Common uses cases for Apache Spark include real-time queries, event stream processing, iterative algorithms, complex operations and machine learning.

Pig: Pig is a platform for analyzing and querying huge data sets that consist of a high-level language for expressing data analysis programs, coupled with infrastructure for evaluating these programs. Pig’s built-in operations can make sense of semi-structured data, such as log files, and the language is extensible using Java to add support for custom data types and transformations.

Pig has three main key properties:

  • Extensibility
  • Optimization opportunities
  • Ease of programming

The salient property of Pig programs is that their structure is amenable to substantial parallelization, which in turns enables them to handle very large data sets. At the present time, Pig’s infrastructure layer consists of a compiler that produces sequences of MapReduce programs.

Oozie: It is a workflow scheduler system to manage hadoop jobs. It is a server-based Workflow Engine specialized in running workflow jobs with actions that run Hadoop MapReduce and Pig jobs. Oozie is implemented as a Java Web-Application that runs in a Java Servlet-Container. Hadoop basically deals with bigdata and when some programmer wants to run many job in a sequential manner like output of job A will be input to Job B and similarly output of job B is input to job C and final output will be output of job C. To automate this sequence we need a workflow and to execute same we need engine for which Oozie is used.

Flume: Flume is a framework for harvesting, aggregating and moving huge amounts of log data or text files in and out of Hadoop. Agents are populated throughout ones IT infrastructure inside web servers, application servers and mobile devices. Flume itself has a query processing engine, so it’s easy to transform each new batch of data before it is shuttled to the intended sink.

Ambari:

Ambari was created to help manage Hadoop. It offers support for many of the tools in the Hadoop ecosystem including Hive, HBase, Pig, Sqoop and Zookeeper. The tool features a management dashboard that keeps track of cluster health and can help diagnose performance issues.

There are many more Ecosystems which you can explore and can use them to solve your bigdata problems.

Distributed Filesystem

Red Hat GlusterFS GlusterFS is a scale-out network-attached storage file system. GlusterFS was developed originally by Gluster, Inc., then by Red Hat, Inc., after their purchase of Gluster in 2011. In June 2012, Red Hat Storage Server was announced as a commercially-supported integration of GlusterFS with Red Hat Enterprise Linux. Gluster File System, known now as Red Hat Storage Server. 1. www.gluster.org
2. Red Hat Hadoop Plugin
Quantcast File System QFS QFS is an open-source distributed file system software package for large-scale MapReduce or other batch-processing workloads. It was designed as an alternative to Apache Hadoop’s HDFS, intended to deliver better performance and cost-efficiency for large-scale processing clusters. It is written in C++ and has fixed-footprint memory management. QFS uses Reed-Solomon error correction as method for assuring reliable access to data.
Reed–Solomon coding is very widely used in mass storage systems to correct the burst errors associated with media defects. Rather than storing three full versions of each file like HDFS, resulting in the need for three times more storage, QFS only needs 1.5x the raw capacity because it stripes data across nine different disk drives.
1. QFS site
2. GitHub QFS
3. HADOOP-8885
Ceph Filesystem Ceph is a free software storage platform designed to present object, block, and file storage from a single distributed computer cluster. Ceph’s main goals are to be completely distributed without a single point of failure, scalable to the exabyte level, and freely-available. The data is replicated, making it fault tolerant. 1. Ceph Filesystem site
2. Ceph and Hadoop
3. HADOOP-6253
XtreemFS XtreemFS is a general purpose storage system and covers most storage needs in a single deployment. It is open-source, requires no special hardware or kernel modules, and can be mounted on Linux, Windows and OS X. XtreemFS runs distributed and offers resilience through replication. XtreemFS Volumes can be accessed through a FUSE component,that offers normal file interaction with POSIX like semantics. Furthermore an implementation of Hadoops FileSystem interface is included which makes XtreemFS available for use with Hadoop, Flink and Spark out of the box. XtreemFS is licensed under the New BSD license. The XtreemFS project is developed by Zuse Institute Berlin. The development of the project is funded by the European Commission since 2006 under Grant Agreements No. FP6-033576, FP7-ICT-257438, and FP7-318521, as well as the German projects MoSGrid, “First We Take Berlin”, FFMK, GeoMultiSens, and BBDC. 1. XtreemFS site 2. Flink on XtreemFS . Spark XtreemFS

Distributed Programming

JAQL JAQL is a functional, declarative programming language designed especially for working with large volumes of structured, semi-structured and unstructured data. As its name implies, a primary use of JAQL is to handle data stored as JSON documents, but JAQL can work on various types of data. For example, it can support XML, comma-separated values (CSV) data and flat files. A “SQL within JAQL” capability lets programmers work with structured SQL data while employing a JSON data model that’s less restrictive than its Structured Query Language counterparts.
Specifically, Jaql allows you to select, join, group, and filter data that is stored in HDFS, much like a blend of Pig and Hive. Jaql’s query language was inspired by many programming and query languages, including Lisp, SQL, XQuery, and Pig.
JAQL was created by workers at IBM Research Labs in 2008 and released to open source. While it continues to be hosted as a project on Google Code, where a downloadable version is available under an Apache 2.0 license, the major development activity around JAQL has remained centered at IBM. The company offers the query language as part of the tools suite associated with InfoSphere BigInsights, its Hadoop platform. Working together with a workflow orchestrator, JAQL is used in BigInsights to exchange data between storage, processing and analytics jobs. It also provides links to external data and services, including relational databases and machine learning data.
1. JAQL in Google Code
2. What is Jaql? by IBM
Apache Storm Storm is a complex event processor (CEP) and distributed computation framework written predominantly in the Clojure programming language. Is a distributed real-time computation system for processing fast, large streams of data. Storm is an architecture based on master-workers paradigma. So a Storm cluster mainly consists of a master and worker nodes, with coordination done by Zookeeper.
Storm makes use of zeromq (0mq, zeromq), an advanced, embeddable networking library. It provides a message queue, but unlike message-oriented middleware (MOM), a 0MQ system can run without a dedicated message broker. The library is designed to have a familiar socket-style API.
Originally created by Nathan Marz and team at BackType, the project was open sourced after being acquired by Twitter. Storm was initially developed and deployed at BackType in 2011. After 7 months of development BackType was acquired by Twitter in July 2011. Storm was open sourced in September 2011.
Hortonworks is developing a Storm-on-YARN version and plans finish the base-level integration in 2013 Q4. This is the plan from Hortonworks. Yahoo/Hortonworks also plans to move Storm-on-YARN code from github.com/yahoo/storm-yarn to be a subproject of Apache Storm project in the near future.
Twitter has recently released a Hadoop-Storm Hybrid called “Summingbird.” Summingbird fuses the two frameworks into one, allowing for developers to use Storm for short-term processing and Hadoop for deep data dives,. a system that aims to mitigate the tradeoffs between batch processing and stream processing by combining them into a hybrid system.
1. Storm Project/
2. Storm-on-YARN
Apache Flink Apache Flink (formerly called Stratosphere) features powerful programming abstractions in Java and Scala, a high-performance runtime, and automatic program optimization. It has native support for iterations, incremental iterations, and programs consisting of large DAGs of operations.
Flink is a data processing system and an alternative to Hadoop’s MapReduce component. It comes with its own runtime, rather than building on top of MapReduce. As such, it can work completely independently of the Hadoop ecosystem. However, Flink can also access Hadoop’s distributed file system (HDFS) to read and write data, and Hadoop’s next-generation resource manager (YARN) to provision cluster resources. Since most Flink users are using Hadoop HDFS to store their data, it ships already the required libraries to access HDFS.
1. Apache Flink incubator page
2. Stratosphere site
Apache Apex Apache Apex is an enterprise grade Apache YARN based big data-in-motion platform that unifies stream processing as well as batch processing. It processes big data in-motion in a highly scalable, highly performant, fault tolerant, stateful, secure, distributed, and an easily operable way. It provides a simple API that enables users to write or re-use generic Java code, thereby lowering the expertise needed to write big data applications.

The Apache Apex platform is supplemented by Apache Apex-Malhar, which is a library of operators that implement common business logic functions needed by customers who want to quickly develop applications. These operators provide access to HDFS, S3, NFS, FTP, and other file systems; Kafka, ActiveMQ, RabbitMQ, JMS, and other message systems; MySql, Cassandra, MongoDB, Redis, HBase, CouchDB and other databases along with JDBC connectors. The library also includes a host of other common business logic patterns that help users to significantly reduce the time it takes to go into production. Ease of integration with all other big data technologies is one of the primary missions of Apache Apex-Malhar.

Apex, available on GitHub, is the core technology upon which DataTorrent’s commercial offering, DataTorrent RTS 3, along with other technology such as a data ingestion tool called dtIngest, are based.

1. Apache Apex from DataTorrent
3. Apache Apex main page
2. Apache Apex Proposal
Netflix PigPen PigPen is map-reduce for Clojure which compiles to Apache Pig. Clojure is dialect of the Lisp programming language created by Rich Hickey, so is a functional general-purpose language, and runs on the Java Virtual Machine, Common Language Runtime, and JavaScript engines. In PigPen there are no special user defined functions (UDFs). Define Clojure functions, anonymously or named, and use them like you would in any Clojure program. This tool is open sourced by Netflix, Inc. the American provider of on-demand Internet streaming media. 1. PigPen on GitHub
AMPLab SIMR Apache Spark was developed thinking in Apache YARN. However, up to now, it has been relatively hard to run Apache Spark on Hadoop MapReduce v1 clusters, i.e. clusters that do not have YARN installed. Typically, users would have to get permission to install Spark/Scala on some subset of the machines, a process that could be time consuming. SIMR allows anyone with access to a Hadoop MapReduce v1 cluster to run Spark out of the box. A user can run Spark directly on top of Hadoop MapReduce v1 without any administrative rights, and without having Spark or Scala installed on any of the nodes. 1. SIMR on GitHub
Facebook Corona “The next version of Map-Reduce” from Facebook, based in own fork of Hadoop. The current Hadoop implementation of the MapReduce technique uses a single job tracker, which causes scaling issues for very large data sets. The Apache Hadoop developers have been creating their own next-generation MapReduce, called YARN, which Facebook engineers looked at but discounted because of the highly-customised nature of the company’s deployment of Hadoop and HDFS. Corona, like YARN, spawns multiple job trackers (one for each job, in Corona’s case). 1. Corona on Github
Damballa Parkour Library for develop MapReduce programs using the LISP like language Clojure. Parkour aims to provide deep Clojure integration for Hadoop. Programs using Parkour are normal Clojure programs, using standard Clojure functions instead of new framework abstractions. Programs using Parkour are also full Hadoop programs, with complete access to absolutely everything possible in raw Java Hadoop MapReduce. 1. Parkour GitHub Project
Apache Hama Apache Top-Level open source project, allowing you to do advanced analytics beyond MapReduce. Many data analysis techniques such as machine learning and graph algorithms require iterative computations, this is where Bulk Synchronous Parallel model can be more effective than “plain” MapReduce. 1. Hama site
Datasalt Pangool A new MapReduce paradigm. A new API for MR jobs, in higher level than Java. 1.Pangool
2.GitHub Pangool
Apache Tez Tez is a proposal to develop a generic application which can be used to process complex data-processing task DAGs and runs natively on Apache Hadoop YARN. Tez generalizes the MapReduce paradigm to a more powerful framework based on expressing computations as a dataflow graph. Tez is not meant directly for end-users – in fact it enables developers to build end-user applications with much better performance and flexibility. Hadoop has traditionally been a batch-processing platform for large amounts of data. However, there are a lot of use cases for near-real-time performance of query processing. There are also several workloads, such as Machine Learning, which do not fit will into the MapReduce paradigm. Tez helps Hadoop address these use cases. Tez framework constitutes part of Stinger initiative (a low latency based SQL type query interface for Hadoop based on Hive). 1. Apache Tez Incubator
2. Hortonworks Apache Tez page
Apache DataFu DataFu provides a collection of Hadoop MapReduce jobs and functions in higher level languages based on it to perform data analysis. It provides functions for common statistics tasks (e.g. quantiles, sampling), PageRank, stream sessionization, and set and bag operations. DataFu also provides Hadoop jobs for incremental data processing in MapReduce. DataFu is a collection of Pig UDFs (including PageRank, sessionization, set operations, sampling, and much more) that were originally developed at LinkedIn. 1. DataFu Apache Incubator
Pydoop Pydoop is a Python MapReduce and HDFS API for Hadoop, built upon the C++ Pipes and the C libhdfs APIs, that allows to write full-fledged MapReduce applications with HDFS access. Pydoop has several advantages over Hadoop’s built-in solutions for Python programming, i.e., Hadoop Streaming and Jython: being a CPython package, it allows you to access all standard library and third party modules, some of which may not be available. 1. SF Pydoop site
2. Pydoop GitHub Project
Kangaroo Open-source project from Conductor for writing MapReduce jobs consuming data from Kafka. The introductory post explains Conductor’s use case—loading data from Kafka to HBase by way of a MapReduce job using the HFileOutputFormat. Unlike other solutions which are limited to a single InputSplit per Kafka partition, Kangaroo can launch multiple consumers at different offsets in the stream of a single partition for increased throughput and parallelism. 1. Kangaroo Introduction
2. Kangaroo GitHub Project
TinkerPop Graph computing framework written in Java. Provides a core API that graph system vendors can implement. There are various types of graph systems including in-memory graph libraries, OLTP graph databases, and OLAP graph processors. Once the core interfaces are implemented, the underlying graph system can be queried using the graph traversal language Gremlin and processed with TinkerPop-enabled algorithms. For many, TinkerPop is seen as the JDBC of the graph computing community. 1. Apache Tinkerpop Proposal
2. TinkerPop site

NoSQL Databases

Column Data Model

Apache Cassandra Distributed Non-SQL DBMS, it’s a BDDB. MR can retrieve data from Cassandra. This BDDB can run without HDFS, or on-top of HDFS (DataStax fork of Cassandra). HBase and its required supporting systems are derived from what is known of the original Google BigTable and Google File System designs (as known from the Google File System paper Google published in 2003, and the BigTable paper published in 2006). Cassandra on the other hand is a recent open source fork of a standalone database system initially coded by Facebook, which while implementing the BigTable data model, uses a system inspired by Amazon’s Dynamo for storing data (in fact much of the initial development work on Cassandra was performed by two Dynamo engineers recruited to Facebook from Amazon). 1. Apache HBase Home
2. Cassandra on GitHub
3. Training Resources
4. Cassandra – Paper
Hypertable Database system inspired by publications on the design of Google’s BigTable. The project is based on experience of engineers who were solving large-scale data-intensive tasks for many years. Hypertable runs on top of a distributed file system such as the Apache Hadoop DFS, GlusterFS, or the Kosmos File System (KFS). It is written almost entirely in C++. Sposored by Baidu the Chinese search engine.
Apache Accumulo Distributed key/value store is a robust, scalable, high performance data storage and retrieval system. Apache Accumulo is based on Google’s BigTable design and is built on top of Apache Hadoop, Zookeeper, and Thrift. Accumulo is software created by the NSA with security features. 1. Apache Accumulo Home
Apache Kudu

Distributed, columnar, relational data store optimized for analytical use cases requiring very fast reads with competitive write speeds.

·Relational data model (tables) with strongly-typed columns and a fast, online alter table operation.

·Scale-out and sharded with support for partitioning based on key ranges and/or hashing.

·Fault-tolerant and consistent due to its implementation of Raft consensus.

·Supported by Apache Impala and Apache Drill, enabling fast SQL reads and writes through those systems.

·Integrates with MapReduce and Spark.

·Additionally provides “NoSQL” APIs in Java, Python, and C++.

1. Apache Kudu Home
2. Kudu on Github
3. Kudu technical whitepaper (pdf)

Document Data Model

MongoDB Document-oriented database system. It is part of the NoSQL family of database systems. Instead of storing data in tables as is done in a “classical” relational database, MongoDB stores structured data as JSON-like documents 1. Mongodb site
RethinkDB RethinkDB is built to store JSON documents, and scale to multiple machines with very little effort. It has a pleasant query language that supports really useful queries like table joins and group by, and is easy to setup and learn. 1. RethinkDB site
ArangoDB An open-source database with a flexible data model for documents, graphs, and key-values. Build high performance applications using a convenient sql-like query language or JavaScript extensions. 1. ArangoDB site

Stream Data Model

EventStore An open-source, functional database with support for Complex Event Processing. It provides a persistence engine for applications using event-sourcing, or for storing time-series data. Event Store is written in C#, C++ for the server which runs on Mono or the .NET CLR, on Linux or Windows. Applications using Event Store can be written in JavaScript. Event sourcing (ES) is a way of persisting your application’s state by storing the history that determines the current state of your application. 1. EventStore site

Key-Value Data Model

Redis DataBase Redis is an open-source, networked, in-memory, data structures store with optional durability. It is written in ANSI C. In its outer layer, the Redis data model is a dictionary which maps keys to values. One of the main differences between Redis and other structured storage systems is that Redis supports not only strings, but also abstract data types. Sponsored by Redis Labs. It’s BSD licensed. 1. Redis site
2. Redis Labs site
Linkedin Voldemort Distributed data store that is designed as a key-value store used by LinkedIn for high-scalability storage. 1. Voldemort site
RocksDB RocksDB is an embeddable persistent key-value store for fast storage. RocksDB can also be the foundation for a client-server database but our current focus is on embedded workloads. 1. RocksDB site
OpenTSDB OpenTSDB is a distributed, scalable Time Series Database (TSDB) written on top of HBase. OpenTSDB was written to address a common need: store, index and serve metrics collected from computer systems (network gear, operating systems, applications) at a large scale, and make this data easily accessible and graphable. 1. OpenTSDB site
Graph Data Model
ArangoDB An open-source database with a flexible data model for documents, graphs, and key-values. Build high performance applications using a convenient sql-like query language or JavaScript extensions. 1. ArangoDB site
Neo4j An open-source graph database writting entirely in Java. It is an embedded, disk-based, fully transactional Java persistence engine that stores data structured in graphs rather than in tables. 1. Neo4j site
TitanDB TitanDB is a highly scalable graph database optimized for storing and querying large graphs with billions of vertices and edges distributed across a multi-machine cluster. Titan is a transactional database that can support thousands of concurrent users. 1. Titan site

NewSQL Databases

SenseiDB Open-source, distributed, realtime, semi-structured database. Some Features: Full-text search, Fast realtime updates, Structured and faceted search, BQL: SQL-like query language, Fast key-value lookup, High performance under concurrent heavy update and query volumes, Hadoop integration 1. SenseiDB site
Sky Sky is an open source database used for flexible, high performance analysis of behavioral data. For certain kinds of data such as clickstream data and log data, it can be several orders of magnitude faster than traditional approaches such as SQL databases or Hadoop. 1. SkyDB site
BayesDB BayesDB, a Bayesian database table, lets users query the probable implications of their tabular data as easily as an SQL database lets them query the data itself. Using the built-in Bayesian Query Language (BQL), users with no statistics training can solve basic data science problems, such as detecting predictive relationships between variables, inferring missing values, simulating probable observations, and identifying statistically similar database entries. 1. BayesDB site
InfluxDB InfluxDB is an open source distributed time series database with no external dependencies. It’s useful for recording metrics, events, and performing analytics. It has a built-in HTTP API so you don’t have to write any server side code to get up and running. InfluxDB is designed to be scalable, simple to install and manage, and fast to get data in and out. It aims to answer queries in real-time. That means every data point is indexed as it comes in and is immediately available in queries that should return under 100ms. 1. InfluxDB site

SQL-On-Hadoop

Apache HCatalog HCatalog’s table abstraction presents users with a relational view of data in the Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS) and ensures that users need not worry about where or in what format their data is stored. Right now HCatalog is part of Hive. Only old versions are separated for download.
Trafodion: Transactional SQL-on-HBase Trafodion is an open source project sponsored by HP, incubated at HP Labs and HP-IT, to develop an enterprise-class SQL-on-HBase solution targeting big data transactional or operational workloads. 1. Trafodion wiki
Apache HAWQ Apache HAWQ is a Hadoop native SQL query engine that combines key technological advantages of MPP database evolved from Greenplum Database, with the scalability and convenience of Hadoop. 1. Apache HAWQ site
2. HAWQ GitHub Project
Apache Drill Drill is the open source version of Google’s Dremel system which is available as an infrastructure service called Google BigQuery. In recent years open source systems have emerged to address the need for scalable batch processing (Apache Hadoop) and stream processing (Storm, Apache S4). Apache Hadoop, originally inspired by Google’s internal MapReduce system, is used by thousands of organizations processing large-scale datasets. Apache Hadoop is designed to achieve very high throughput, but is not designed to achieve the sub-second latency needed for interactive data analysis and exploration. Drill, inspired by Google’s internal Dremel system, is intended to address this need 1. Apache Incubator Drill
Cloudera Impala The Apache-licensed Impala project brings scalable parallel database technology to Hadoop, enabling users to issue low-latency SQL queries to data stored in HDFS and Apache HBase without requiring data movement or transformation. It’s a Google Dremel clone (Big Query google). 1. Cloudera Impala site
2. Impala GitHub Project
Facebook Presto Facebook has open sourced Presto, a SQL engine it says is on average 10 times faster than Hive for running queries across large data sets stored in Hadoop and elsewhere. 1. Presto site
Datasalt Splout SQL Splout allows serving an arbitrarily big dataset with high QPS rates and at the same time provides full SQL query syntax.
Apache Phoenix Apache Phoenix is a SQL skin over HBase delivered as a client-embedded JDBC driver targeting low latency queries over HBase data. Apache Phoenix takes your SQL query, compiles it into a series of HBase scans, and orchestrates the running of those scans to produce regular JDBC result sets. The table metadata is stored in an HBase table and versioned, such that snapshot queries over prior versions will automatically use the correct schema. Direct use of the HBase API, along with coprocessors and custom filters, results in performance on the order of milliseconds for small queries, or seconds for tens of millions of rows. 1. Apache Phoenix site

Data Ingestion

Facebook Scribe Log agregator in real-time. It’s a Apache Thrift Service.
Apache Chukwa Large scale log aggregator, and analytics.
Apache Kafka Distributed publish-subscribe system for processing large amounts of streaming data. Kafka is a Message Queue developed by LinkedIn that persists messages to disk in a very performant manner. Because messages are persisted, it has the interesting ability for clients to rewind a stream and consume the messages again. Another upside of the disk persistence is that bulk importing the data into HDFS for offline analysis can be done very quickly and efficiently. Storm, developed by BackType (which was acquired by Twitter a year ago), is more about transforming a stream of messages into new streams. 1. Apache Kafka
2. GitHub source code
Netflix Suro Suro has its roots in Apache Chukwa, which was initially adopted by Netflix. Is a log agregattor like Storm, Samza.
Apache Samza Apache Samza is a distributed stream processing framework. It uses Apache Kafka for messaging, and Apache Hadoop YARN to provide fault tolerance, processor isolation, security, and resource management. Developed by http://www.linkedin.com/in/jaykreps Linkedin.
Cloudera Morphline Cloudera Morphlines is a new open source framework that reduces the time and skills necessary to integrate, build, and change Hadoop processing applications that extract, transform, and load data into Apache Solr, Apache HBase, HDFS, enterprise data warehouses, or analytic online dashboards.
HIHO This project is a framework for connecting disparate data sources with the Apache Hadoop system, making them interoperable. HIHO connects Hadoop with multiple RDBMS and file systems, so that data can be loaded to Hadoop and unloaded from Hadoop
Apache NiFi Apache NiFi is a dataflow system that is currently under incubation at the Apache Software Foundation. NiFi is based on the concepts of flow-based programming and is highly configurable. NiFi uses a component based extension model to rapidly add capabilities to complex dataflows. Out of the box NiFi has several extensions for dealing with file-based dataflows such as FTP, SFTP, and HTTP integration as well as integration with HDFS. One of NiFi’s unique features is a rich, web-based interface for designing, controlling, and monitoring a dataflow. 1. Apache NiFi

Service Programming

Apache Thrift A cross-language RPC framework for service creations. It’s the service base for Facebook technologies (the original Thrift contributor). Thrift provides a framework for developing and accessing remote services. It allows developers to create services that can be consumed by any application that is written in a language that there are Thrift bindings for. Thrift manages serialization of data to and from a service, as well as the protocol that describes a method invocation, response, etc. Instead of writing all the RPC code — you can just get straight to your service logic. Thrift uses TCP and so a given service is bound to a particular port. 1. Apache Thrift
Apache Avro Apache Avro is a framework for modeling, serializing and making Remote Procedure Calls (RPC). Avro data is described by a schema, and one interesting feature is that the schema is stored in the same file as the data it describes, so files are self-describing. Avro does not require code generation. This framework can compete with other similar tools like: Apache Thrift, Google Protocol Buffers, ZeroC ICE, and so on. 1. Apache Avro
Apache Curator Curator is a set of Java libraries that make using Apache ZooKeeper much easier.
Apache karaf Apache Karaf is an OSGi runtime that runs on top of any OSGi framework and provides you a set of services, a powerful provisioning concept, an extensible shell and more.
Twitter Elephant Bird Elephant Bird is a project that provides utilities (libraries) for working with LZOP-compressed data. It also provides a container format that supports working with Protocol Buffers, Thrift in MapReduce, Writables, Pig LoadFuncs, Hive SerDe, HBase miscellanea. This open source library is massively used in Twitter. 1. Elephant Bird GitHub
Linkedin Norbert Norbert is a library that provides easy cluster management and workload distribution. With Norbert, you can quickly distribute a simple client/server architecture to create a highly scalable architecture capable of handling heavy traffic. Implemented in Scala, Norbert wraps ZooKeeper, Netty and uses Protocol Buffers for transport to make it easy to build a cluster aware application. A Java API is provided and pluggable load balancing strategies are supported with round robin and consistent hash strategies provided out of the box. 1. Linedin Project
2. GitHub source code

Scheduling

Apache Oozie Workflow scheduler system for MR jobs using DAGs (Direct Acyclical Graphs). Oozie Coordinator can trigger jobs by time (frequency) and data availability 1. Apache Oozie
2. GitHub source code
Linkedin Azkaban Hadoop workflow management. A batch job scheduler can be seen as a combination of the cron and make Unix utilities combined with a friendly UI.
Apache Falcon Apache Falcon is a data management framework for simplifying data lifecycle management and processing pipelines on Apache Hadoop. It enables users to configure, manage and orchestrate data motion, pipeline processing, disaster recovery, and data retention workflows. Instead of hard-coding complex data lifecycle capabilities, Hadoop applications can now rely on the well-tested Apache Falcon framework for these functions. Falcon’s simplification of data management is quite useful to anyone building apps on Hadoop. Data Management on Hadoop encompasses data motion, process orchestration, lifecycle management, data discovery, etc. among other concerns that are beyond ETL. Falcon is a new data processing and management platform for Hadoop that solves this problem and creates additional opportunities by building on existing components within the Hadoop ecosystem (ex. Apache Oozie, Apache Hadoop DistCp etc.) without reinventing the wheel.
Schedoscope Schedoscope is a new open-source project providing a scheduling framework for painfree agile development, testing, (re)loading, and monitoring of your datahub, lake, or whatever you choose to call your Hadoop data warehouse these days. Datasets (including dependencies) are defined using a scala DSL, which can embed MapReduce jobs, Pig scripts, Hive queries or Oozie workflows to build the dataset. The tool includes a test framework to verify logic and a command line utility to load and reload data. GitHub source code

Machine Learning

Apache Mahout Machine learning library and math library, on top of MapReduce.
Cloudera Oryx The Oryx open source project provides simple, real-time large-scale machine learning / predictive analytics infrastructure. It implements a few classes of algorithm commonly used in business applications: collaborative filtering / recommendation, classification / regression, and clustering. 1. Oryx at GitHub
2. Cloudera forum for Machine Learning
MADlib The MADlib project leverages the data-processing capabilities of an RDBMS to analyze data. The aim of this project is the integration of statistical data analysis into databases. The MADlib project is self-described as the Big Data Machine Learning in SQL for Data Scientists. The MADlib software project began the following year as a collaboration between researchers at UC Berkeley and engineers and data scientists at EMC/Greenplum (now Pivotal) 1. MADlib Community
H2O H2O is a statistical, machine learning and math runtime tool for bigdata analysis. Developed by the predictive analytics company H2O.ai, H2O has established a leadership in the ML scene together with R and Databricks’ Spark. According to the team,  H2O is the world’s fastest in-memory platform for machine learning and predictive analytics on big data. It is designed to help users scale machine learning, math, and statistics over large datasets.

In addition to H2O’s point and click Web-UI, its REST API allows easy integration into various clients. This means explorative analysis of data can be done in a typical fashion in R, Python, and Scala; and entire workflows can be written up as automated scripts.

1. H2O at GitHub
2. H2O Blog
Sparkling Water

Sparkling Water combines two open source technologies: Apache Spark and H2O – a machine learning engine.  It makes H2O’s library of Advanced Algorithms including Deep Learning, GLM, GBM, KMeans, PCA, and Random Forest accessible from Spark workflows. Spark users are provided with the options to select the best features from either platforms to meet their Machine Learning needs.  Users can combine Sparks’ RDD API and Spark MLLib with H2O’s machine learning algorithms, or use H2O independent of Spark in the model building process and post-process the results in Spark.

Sparkling Water provides a transparent integration of H2O’s framework and data structures into Spark’s RDD-based environment by sharing the same execution space as well as providing a RDD-like API for H2O data structures.

1. Sparkling Water at GitHub
2. Sparkling Water Examples

Benchmarking

Apache Hadoop Benchmarking There are two main JAR files in Apache Hadoop for benchmarking. This JAR are micro-benchmarks for testing particular parts of the infrastructure, for instance TestDFSIO analyzes the disk system, TeraSort evaluates MapReduce tasks, WordCount measures cluster performance, etc. Micro-Benchmarks are packaged in the tests and exmaples JAR files, and you can get a list of them, with descriptions, by invoking the JAR file with no arguments. With regards Apache Hadoop 2.2.0 stable version we have available the following JAR files for test, examples and benchmarking. The Hadoop micro-benchmarks, are bundled in this JAR files: hadoop-mapreduce-examples-2.2.0.jar, hadoop-mapreduce-client-jobclient-2.2.0-tests.jar. 1. MAPREDUCE-3561 umbrella ticket to track all the issues related to performance
PUMA Benchmarking Benchmark suite which represents a broad range of MapReduce applications exhibiting application characteristics with high/low computation and high/low shuffle volumes. There are a total of 13 benchmarks, out of which Tera-Sort, Word-Count, and Grep are from Hadoop distribution. The rest of the benchmarks were developed in-house and are currently not part of the Hadoop distribution. The three benchmarks from Hadoop distribution are also slightly modified to take number of reduce tasks as input from the user and generate final time completion statistics of jobs. 1. MAPREDUCE-5116
2. Faraz Ahmad researcher
3. PUMA Docs
Berkeley SWIM Benchmark The SWIM benchmark (Statistical Workload Injector for MapReduce), is a benchmark representing a real-world big data workload developed by University of California at Berkley in close cooperation with Facebook. This test provides rigorous measurements of the performance of MapReduce systems comprised of real industry workloads.. 1. GitHub SWIN

Security

Apache Knox Gateway System that provides a single point of secure access for Apache Hadoop clusters. The goal is to simplify Hadoop security for both users (i.e. who access the cluster data and execute jobs) and operators (i.e. who control access and manage the cluster). The Gateway runs as a server (or cluster of servers) that serve one or more Hadoop clusters. 1. Apache Knox
2. Apache Knox Gateway Hortonworks web
Apache Ranger Apache Argus Ranger (formerly called Apache Argus or HDP Advanced Security) delivers comprehensive approach to central security policy administration across the core enterprise security requirements of authentication, authorization, accounting and data protection. It extends baseline features for coordinated enforcement across Hadoop workloads from batch, interactive SQL and real–time and leverages the extensible architecture to apply policies consistently against additional Hadoop ecosystem components (beyond HDFS, Hive, and HBase) including Storm, Solr, Spark, and more. 1. Apache Ranger
2. Apache Ranger Hortonworks web

System Deployment

Apache Ambari Intuitive, easy-to-use Hadoop management web UI backed by its RESTful APIs. Apache Ambari was donated by Hortonworks team to the ASF. It’s a powerful and nice interface for Hadoop and other typical applications from the Hadoop ecosystem. Apache Ambari is under a heavy development, and it will incorporate new features in a near future. For example Ambari is able to deploy a complete Hadoop system from scratch, however is not possible use this GUI in a Hadoop system that is already running. The ability to provisioning the operating system could be a good addition, however probably is not in the roadmap.. 1. Apache Ambari
Cloudera HUE Web application for interacting with Apache Hadoop. It’s not a deployment tool, is an open-source Web interface that supports Apache Hadoop and its ecosystem, licensed under the Apache v2 license. HUE is used for Hadoop and its ecosystem user operations. For example HUE offers editors for Hive, Impala, Oozie, Pig, and notebooks for Spark, Solr Search dashboards, HDFS, YARN, HBase browsers. 1. HUE home page
Apache Whirr Apache Whirr is a set of libraries for running cloud services. It allows you to use simple commands to boot clusters of distributed systems for testing and experimentation. Apache Whirr makes booting clusters easy.
Myriad Myriad is a mesos framework designed for scaling YARN clusters on Mesos. Myriad can expand or shrink one or more YARN clusters in response to events as per configured rules and policies. 1. Myriad Github
Marathon Marathon is a Mesos framework for long-running services. Given that you have Mesos running as the kernel for your datacenter, Marathon is the init or upstart daemon.
Brooklyn Brooklyn is a library that simplifies application deployment and management. For deployment, it is designed to tie in with other tools, giving single-click deploy and adding the concepts of manageable clusters and fabrics: Many common software entities available out-of-the-box. Integrates with Apache Whirr — and thereby Chef and Puppet — to deploy well-known services such as Hadoop and elastic search (or use POBS, plain-old-bash-scripts) Use PaaS’s such as OpenShift, alongside self-built clusters, for maximum flexibility
Hortonworks HOYA HOYA is defined as “running HBase On YARN”. The Hoya tool is a Java tool, and is currently CLI driven. It takes in a cluster specification – in terms of the number of regionservers, the location of HBASE_HOME, the ZooKeeper quorum hosts, the configuration that the new HBase cluster instance should use and so on.
So HOYA is for HBase deployment using a tool developed on top of YARN. Once the cluster has been started, the cluster can be made to grow or shrink using the Hoya commands. The cluster can also be stopped and later resumed. Hoya implements the functionality through YARN APIs and HBase’s shell scripts. The goal of the prototype was to have minimal code changes and as of this writing, it has required zero code changes in HBase.
1. Hortonworks Blog
Apache Helix Apache Helix is a generic cluster management framework used for the automatic management of partitioned, replicated and distributed resources hosted on a cluster of nodes. Originally developed by Linkedin, now is in an incubator project at Apache. Helix is developed on top of Zookeeper for coordination tasks. 1. Apache Helix
Apache Bigtop Bigtop was originally developed and released as an open source packaging infrastructure by Cloudera. BigTop is used for some vendors to build their own distributions based on Apache Hadoop (CDH, Pivotal HD, Intel’s distribution), however Apache Bigtop does many more tasks, like continuous integration testing (with Jenkins, maven, …) and is useful for packaging (RPM and DEB), deployment with Puppet, and so on. BigTop also features vagrant recipes for spinning up “n-node” hadoop clusters, and the bigpetstore blueprint application which demonstrates construction of a full stack hadoop app with ETL, machine learning, and dataset generation. Apache Bigtop could be considered as a community effort with a main focus: put all bits of the Hadoop ecosystem as a whole, rather than individual projects. 1. Apache Bigtop.
Buildoop Buildoop is an open source project licensed under Apache License 2.0, based on Apache BigTop idea. Buildoop is a collaboration project that provides templates and tools to help you create custom Linux-based systems based on Hadoop ecosystem. The project is built from scrach using Groovy language, and is not based on a mixture of tools like BigTop does (Makefile, Gradle, Groovy, Maven), probably is easier to programming than BigTop, and the desing is focused in the basic ideas behind the buildroot Yocto Project. The project is in early stages of development right now. 1. Hadoop Ecosystem Builder.
Deploop Deploop is a tool for provisioning, managing and monitoring Apache Hadoop clusters focused in the Lambda Architecture. LA is a generic design based on the concepts of Twitter engineer Nathan Marz. This generic architecture was designed addressing common requirements for big data. The Deploop system is in ongoing development, in alpha phases of maturity. The system is setup on top of highly scalable techologies like Puppet and MCollective. 1. The Hadoop Deploy System.

Development Frameworks

Jumbune Jumbune is an open source product that sits on top of any Hadoop distribution and assists in development and administration of MapReduce solutions. The objective of the product is to assist analytical solution providers to port fault free applications on production Hadoop environments.
Jumbune supports all active major branches of Apache Hadoop namely 1.x, 2.x, 0.23.x and commercial MapR, HDP 2.x and CDH 5.x distributions of Hadoop. It has the ability to work well with both Yarn and non-Yarn versions of Hadoop.
It has four major modules MapReduce Debugger, HDFS Data Validator, On-demand cluster monitor and MapReduce job profiler. Jumbune can be deployed on any remote user machine and uses a lightweight agent on the NameNode of the cluster to relay relevant information to and fro.
1. Jumbune
2. Jumbune GitHub Project
3. Jumbune JIRA page
Cask Data Application Platform Cask Data Application Platform is an open source application development platform for the Hadoop ecosystem that provides developers with data and application virtualization to accelerate application development, address a range of real-time and batch use cases, and deploy applications into production. The deployment is made by Cask Coopr, an open source template-based cluster management solution that provisions, manages, and scales clusters for multi-tiered application stacks on public and private clouds. Another component is Tigon, a distributed framework built on Apache Hadoop and Apache HBase for real-time, high-throughput, low-latency data processing and analytics applications. 1. Cask Site

Visualization

Apache Zeppelin Zeppelin is a modern web-based tool for the data scientists to collaborate over large-scale data exploration and visualization projects. It is a notebook style interpreter that enable collaborative analysis sessions sharing between users. Zeppelin is independent of the execution framework itself. Current version runs on top of Apache Spark but it has pluggable interpreter APIs to support other data processing systems. More execution frameworks could be added at a later date i.e Apache Flink, Crunch as well as SQL-like backends such as Hive, Tajo, MRQL. 1. Apache Zeppelin site


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